Understanding Different Title Defects That Title Insurance Can Cover: A Must-Know for Realtors, Loan Officers, Home Buyers, and Sellers

Sep 15, 2023

Title Insurance is one of the most critical parts of any real estate transaction, yet it is often overlooked. For instance, if there are title defects, such as an issue with the property’s title, that may affect the rightful ownership of the property or create legal or financial complications, then this can significantly impact the real estate transaction. Title defects can pose serious risks, resulting in financial loss, legal disputes, and property loss.

Why Understanding Title Defects Is Important

For Realtors: Understanding title defects equips realtors to guide their clients more effectively, potentially saving deals that might otherwise fall through due to title issues.

For Loan Officers: Being aware of title defects helps loan officers assess risk, ensuring the lender’s collateral is not compromised.

For Home Buyers: Knowing about title defects can save buyers from legal issues. Title insurance provides peace of mind, ensuring they won’t lose their investment due to title problems.

For Home Sellers: Sellers need to know about any defects that could interfere with the sale and resolve them beforehand. A clear title can also command a higher selling price.

Common Title Defects Covered by Title Insurance

1. Errors in Public Records

Mistakes can occur when deeds are filed. Such errors could include incorrect names, missing pages, or property descriptions.

2. Unknown Liens

A previous owner might have left unpaid debts that have become liens against the property. Title insurance will protect you against such financial issues.

3. Illegal Deeds

Sometimes, property transactions can occur under illegal circumstances. For instance, a minor, an undocumented immigrant, or a person declared mentally incompetent may sell a property.

4. Missing Heirs

Missing or unknown heirs can claim the property, especially when the previous owner dies intestate (without a will). Title insurance helps protect against such claims.

5. Forgeries

Forged or fabricated documents related to property ownership can affect the validity of homeownership. These issues often come to light long after the transaction has occurred.

6. Encumbrances and Easements

Sometimes, third parties may have rights to portions of your property because of encumbrances or easements you may need to be made aware of when you purchase the property.

7. Boundary and Survey Disputes

You might know where your property lines are until a survey shows otherwise. Disputes with neighbors or previous owners can affect your ownership rights.

8. Undiscovered Encumbrances

Covenants or conditions imposed on the property by a previous owner may limit your use of it. Title insurance can protect against such unknown restrictions.

9. Unrecorded Documents

Sometimes, certain ownership rights or conditions need to be officially recorded in local or state records, causing complications during the transaction process.

10. Unknown Easements

You may buy a property not knowing that a third party has a right-of-way easement, giving them the legal right to traverse your property.

While title insurance can cover numerous defects, it’s important to understand that it does not cover potential future defects like newly arisen disputes or zoning changes. Always read your policy carefully to understand the extent of your coverage. Most policies will cover legal fees in defending a claim against your title and either correct the title defect or pay financial losses incurred up to the amount of the policy.

In the complex world of real estate, title insurance serves as an essential safety net, protecting buyers, sellers, realtors, and loan officers from a myriad of risks associated with title defects. By understanding what title defects are and how they can be covered, all parties involved can facilitate smoother, more secure real estate transactions.